Abstracts Articles Authors

Abstracts of Articles on Dew Computing

Cloud, Fog and Dew Computing: A Distributed Hierarchy

After the phenomena that occurred in 2000, which we have denoted as the G-phenomena, the era of the fast development of high-performance and scalable distributed computing systems started. The primary predisposition for that development was achieving substantial speed improvements of processors and their interconnections, and the ability to process more data in memory. High-performance distributed computing systems were founded on Grid computing paradigm, while scalable distributed computing systems evolved through Cloud, later Fog and now Dew computing paradigm. However, the complexity of interconnectivity, and even more the heterogeneity of equipment used through these paradigms is drastically growing as we approach the Dew Computing level, on which we can not any more hope to cope with raw Data, but have to introduce Information Processing, and solve the problems of High Productivity of the every-day end-user interfaces and the adaptability of the whole user environment system to the user needs and wishes for specific processing, as well as significantly raising the Efficiency of the whole system we use.

Cloud-dew architecture: realizing the potential of distributed database systems in unreliable networks

Distributed database systems, which continue to inspire new architectures and new applications, have great potential in the modern computing world. In this paper, we show that the newly-proposed cloud-dew architecture realizes the potential of distributed database systems in the unreliable network environment, and provides the possibility of websurfing without an Internet connection. Distributed database systems are generic and versatile; the proper applications of distributed database systems and their features will be beneficial to users and service providers

Cloud-dew architecture

Users derive many benefits by storing personal data in cloud computing services; however the drawback of storing data in these services is that the user cannot access his/her own data when an internet connection is not available. To solve this problem in an efficient and elegant way, we propose the cloud-dew architecture. Cloud-dew architecture is an extension of the client-server architecture. In the extension, servers are further classified into cloud servers and dew servers. The dew servers are web servers that reside on user's local computers and have a pluggable structure so that scripts and databases of websites can be installed easily. The cloud-dew architecture not only makes the personal data stored in the cloud continuously accessible by the user, but also enables a new application: web-surfing without an internet connection. An experimental system is presented to demonstrate the ideas of the cloud-dew architecture.

The Relationships among Cloud Computing, Fog Computing, and Dew Computing

Dew Computing and Fog Computing are two new computing paradigms appeared after the widely acceptance of Cloud Computing. Apparently, dew and fog are metaphors coming from cloud which is the initial metaphor. They had different goals and went through different paths. Here we try to clarify the differences between them and the relationships among all the three computing paradigms.

Scalable distributed computing hierarchy: Cloud, fog and dew computing

The paper considers the conceptual approach for organization of the vertical hierarchical links between the scalable distributed computing paradigms: Cloud Computing, Fog Computing and Dew Computing. In this paper, the Dew Computing is described and recognized as a new structural layer in the existing distributed computing hierarchy. In the existing computing hierarchy, the Dew computing is positioned as the ground level for the Cloud and Fog computing paradigms. Vertical, complementary, hierarchical division from Cloud to Dew Computing satisfies the needs of high- and low-end computing demands in everyday life and work. These new computing paradigms lower the cost and improve the performance, particularly for concepts and applications such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and the Internet of Everything (IoE). In addition, the Dew computing paradigm will require new programming models that will efficiently reduce the complexity and improve the productivity and usability of scalable distributed computing, following the principles of High-Productivity computing.

Implementation of a Horizontal Scalable Balancer for Dew Computing Services

Cloud, fog and dew computing concepts offer elastic resources that can serve scalable services. These resources can be scaled horizontally or vertically. The former is more powerful, which increases the number of same machines (scaled out) to retain the performance of the service. However, this scaling is tightly connected with the existence of a balancer in front of the scaled resources that will balance the load among the end points. In this paper, we present a successful implementation of a scalable low-level load balancer, implemented on the network layer. The scalability is tested by a series of experiments for a small scale servers providing services in the range of dew computing services. The experiments showed that it adds small latency of several milliseconds and thus it slightly reduces the performance when the distributed system is underutilized. However, the results show that the balancer achieves even a super-linear speedup (speedup greater than the number of scaled resources) for a greater load. The paper discusses also many other benefits that the balancer provides.

A Detail Review on Cloud, Fog and Dew Computing

The paper takes the conceptual method for organization of the vertical hierarchical connections between the scalable distributed computing paradigms: Fog computing, Cloud Computing and Dew Computing. In this paper, the Dew Computing is explained and realized as a novel structural layer in the available distributed computing hierarchy. In the available computing hierarchy, the Dew computing is placed as the base level for the Fog and Cloud computing paradigms. Vertical, hierarchical and complementary division from Cloud to Dew Computing fulfills the requirements of low and high end computing needs in everyday work and life. These novel computing paradigms decreases the cost and enhance the performance, specifically for applications and concepts i.e. Internet of Everything (IoE) and the Internet of Things (IoT). In summation, the Dew computing paradigm will need novel programming models that will effectively decrease the complexity and enhance the usability and productivity of scalable distributed computing, adopting the High-Productivity computing principles.

Definition and Categorization of Dew Computing

Dew computing is an emerging new research area and has great potentials in applications. In this paper, we propose a revised definition of dew computing. The new definition is: Dew computing is an on-premises computer software-hardware organization paradigm in the cloud computing environment where the on-premises computer provides functionality that is independent of cloud services and is also collaborative with cloud services. The goal of dew computing is to fully realize the potentials of on-premises computers and cloud services. This definition emphasizes two key features of dew computing: independence and collaboration. Furthermore, we propose a group of dew computing categories. These categories may inspire new applications.

Fog-Dew Architecture for Better Consistency

Computing that is independent and collaborative with the cloud computing is referred as dew computing. The main principle that drives dew computing is the drawback of cloud computing, requirement of internet connection. Though dew computing will allow user to have functions and services offline, the duration for which it will be in inconsistent state with the cloud is important concern. The proposed technique in this paper introduces fog layer that will fill the time lag between dew and cloud services. An application is discussed later in the paper to demonstrate the concept.

Battery-aware centralized schedulers for CPU-bound jobs in mobile Grids

Given the relentless growing number of mobile devices, researchers have pointed out that distributed computing environments, such as clusters or even computational Grids, could increase the available resources by scavenging devices’ capabilities. However, this negatively impacts on their batteries. We study centralized job schedulers that aim at exploiting clusters of mobile resources with rather stable devices in terms of connection time. These schedulers outperform a previous centralized scheduler, finishing up to 30% more jobs with the same amount of energy. We also show that the schedulers perform competitively compared to schedulers based on job stealing, which are more difficult to implement and consume more network resources and hence energy.

Views on the role and importance of dew computing in the service and control technology

Modern day computing paradigms foster for a huge community of involved participants from almost the entire spectrum of human endeavour. For computing and data processing there are individual Computers, their Clusters, Grids, and, finally, the Clouds. For pure data communication there is the Internet, and for the Human-understandable Information Communication for example the World Wide Web. The rapid development of hand-held mobile devices with high computational capabilities and Internet connectivity enabled certain parts of Clouds to be "lowered" into the so called "thin clients". This led to development of the Fog-Computing Paradigm as well as development of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Internet of Everything (IoE) concepts.

However, the most significant amount of information processing all around us is done on the lowest possible computing level, outright connected to the physical environment and mostly directly controlling our human immediate surroundings. These "invisible" information processing devices we find in our car's motor, in the refrigerator, the gas boiler, air-conditioners, wending machines, musical instruments, radio-receivers, home entertainment systems, traffic-controls, theatres, lights, wood-burning stoves, and ubiquitously all over the industry and in industrial products. These devices, which are neither at the cloud/fog edge, nor even at the mobile edge, but rather at the physical edge of computing are the basis of the Dew Computing Paradigm.

The merits of seamlessly integrating those "dew" devices into the Cloud-Fog-Dew Computing hierarchy are enormous, for individuals, the public and industrial sectors, the scientific community and the commercial sector, by bettering the physical and communicational, as well as the intellectual, immediate human environment.

In the possibility of developing integrated home management/entertainment/maintenance systems, self-organising traffic-control systems, intelligent driver suggestion systems, coordinated building/car/traffic pollution control systems, real-time hospital systems with all patient and equipment status and control collaborating with the medical staff, fully consistent synaesthetic artistic performances including artists and independent individuals ("active public") from wide apart, power distribution peek filtering, self-reorganisation and mutual cooperation systems based on informed behaviour of individual power consumption elements, emergency systems which cooperate with the town traffic, etc., etc., the Dew-Computing paradigm shows the way towards the Distributed Information Services Environment (DISE), and finally towards the present civilisation's aim of establishment of a Global Information Processing Environment (GIPE).

It is therefore essential, through Research, Innovation and Development, to explore the realm of possibilities of Dew Computing, solve the basic problems of integration of the "dew" level with the higher level Dew-Fog-Cloud hierarchy, with special attention to the necessity of information (not only data) processing and communication, and demonstrate the viability and high effectiveness of the developed architecture in several areas of human endeavour through real life implementations. The present scientific and technological main objective is to provide the concepts, methods and proof-of-concept implementations that are moving Dew Computing from a theoretical/experimental concept to a validated technology. Finally, it will be necessary to define and standardise the basics of the Dew Computing Architecture, Language and Ontology, which is a necessity for the seamless integration of the emerging new Global Information Processing Architecture into the Fog and Cloud Paradigms, as a way towards the above mentioned civilisation goals.

Controlled Components for Internet of Things As-A-Service

In order to facilitate developers willing to create future Internet of Things (IoT) services incorporating the nonfunctional aspects, we introduce an approach and an environment based on controlled components. Our approach allows developers to design an IoT "as-a-service", to build the service composition and to manage it. This is important, because the IoT allows us to observe and understand the real world in order to have decision-making information to act on reality. It is important to make sure that all these components work according to their mission, i.e. their Quality of Service (QoS) contract. Our environment provides the modeling, generates Architecture Description Language (ADL) formats, and uses them in the implementation phase on an open-source platform.

Doing More with the Dew: A New Approach to Cloud-Dew Architecture

While the popularity of cloud computing is exploding, a new network computing paradigm is just beginning. In this paper, we examine this exciting area of research known as dew computing and propose a new design of cloud-dew architecture. Instead of hosting only one dew server on a user's PC - as adopted in the current dewsite application - our design promotes the hosting of multiple dew servers instead, one for each installed domain. Our design intends to improve upon existing cloud-dew architecture by providing significantly increased freedom in dewsite development, while also automating the chore of managing dewsite content based on the user's interests and browsing habits. Other noteworthy benefits, all at no added cost to dewsite users, are briefly explored as well.

Dew Computing: The Complementary Piece of Cloud Computing

Dew computing, as a new paradigm and new research area, is on the horizon. In this paper, we will explore the essence of dew computing, discuss its potentials and challenges. Dew computing brings on-premises computer applications to a level that they are constantly get support from cloud services, dew computing is the future direction of on-premises computer applications. Based on the features and requirements of dew computing, we propose a new kind of computers: dew computers. Although we envision some characteristics of dew computers, the exact features of dew computers need to be further explored and determined. Dew computing is tightly related to cloud computing, and it is the complementary piece of cloud computing.

Integrating SaaS and SaaP with Dew Computing

Software as a Service (SaaS) is one of the major service models of cloud computing and a new software delivery model; in this software delivery model, software is hosted centrally, is licensed to users on subscription basis, and typically is accessed by users through a Web browser. Before SaaS was introduced, the traditional software delivery model was Software as a Product (SaaP): software was sold to users and installed in users local computers. In this paper, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of SaaS and SaaP, and suggest a new software delivery model that is an integration of SaaS and SaaP. Dew computing can be used to integrate SaaS and SaaP. This new software delivery model has some great features.

A Two-Phase Energy-Aware Scheduling Approach for CPU-Intensive Jobs in Mobile Grids

The profusion of mobile devices over the world and their evolved computational capabilities promote their inclusion as resource providers in traditional Grid environments. However, their efficient exploitation requires adapting current schedulers to operate with computing capabilities limited by energy supply and mobile devices that cannot be assumed to be dedicated, among other concerns. We propose a two-phase scheduling approach for running CPU-intensive jobs on mobile devices that combines novel energy-aware criteria with job stealing techniques. The approach was evaluated through an event-based simulator that uses battery consumption profiles extracted from real mobile devices. CPU usage derived from non-Grid processes was also modelled. For evaluating the first phase we compared the number of finalized jobs by all energy-aware criteria, while for the second phase we analyzed the performance boost introduced by job stealing. While the best first phase criteria finalized up to 90 % of submitted jobs, job stealing increased this percentage by up to 9 %.

The Key Drivers of Emerging Socio-Technical Systems: A Perspective of Dew computing in Cyber-Physical Systems

Ever increasing needs of the human society are resulting in the emergence of various technical systems. The emerging and evolving technical systems on the other hand have been influencing the modern societies evolution increasingly becoming crucial part of everyday life. Today, this co- evolution of social and technical systems and their entanglement is a pervasive phenomenon of the emerging socio-technical systems. Examples include smart critical infrastructures such as smart grid, smart transportation or smart city, online social networking platforms or even collaborative software development systems. These examples stand on the shoulders of two evolution trends of: (1) Cloud, Fog, and Dew computing paradigms and (2) Internet of Things and Cyber-Physical Systems. The convergence of these trends forms the basis of newly emerging socio-technical systems.

A dew computing solution for IoT streaming devices

Most people refer to modern mobile and wireless ubiquitous solutions as an IoT application. The advances of the technology and establishment of cloud-based systems emerge the idea of the connected world over Internet based on distributed processing sites. In this paper, we discuss the dew computing architectural approach for IoT solutions and give an organizational overview of the dew server and its connections with IoT devices in the overall cloud-based solutions. Dew servers act as another computing layer in the cloud-based architecture for IoT solutions, and we present its specific goals and requirements. This is compared to the fog computing and cloudlet solutions with an overview of the overall computing trends. The dew servers are analyzed from architectural and organizational aspect as devices that collect, process and offload streaming data from the IoT sensors and devices, besides the communication with higher-level servers in the cloud.

Augmented Coaching Ecosystem for Non-obtrusive Adaptive Personalized Elderly Care on the basis of Cloud-Fog-Dew computing paradigm

The concept of the augmented coaching ecosystem for non-obtrusive adaptive personalized elderly care is proposed on the basis of the integration of new and available ICT approaches. They include multimodal user interface (MMUI), augmented reality (AR), machine learning (ML), Internet of Things (IoT), and machine-to-machine (M2M) interactions. The ecosystem is based on the Cloud-Fog-Dew computing paradigm services, providing a full symbiosis by integrating the whole range from low level sensors up to high level services using integration efficiency inherent in synergistic use of applied technologies. Inside of this ecosystem, all of them are encapsulated in the following network layers: Dew, Fog, and Cloud computing layer. Instead of the "spaghetti connections", "mosaic of buttons", "puzzles of output data", etc., the proposed ecosystem provides the strict division in the following dataflow channels: consumer interaction channel, machine interaction channel, and caregiver interaction channel. This concept allows to decrease the physical, cognitive, and mental load on elderly care stakeholders by decreasing the secondary human-to-human (H2H), human-to-machine (H2M), and machine-to-human (M2H) interactions in favor of M2M interactions and distributed Dew Computing services environment. It allows to apply this non-obtrusive augmented reality ecosystem for effective personalized elderly care to preserve their physical, cognitive, mental and social well-being.

Cloud-Dew computing support for automatic data analysis in life sciences

In this paper we show how the technologies associated with the evolution of Cloud computing to Dew computing can contribute to the advancing scientific computational productivity through automation. In the current big data paradigm developments, there is growing trend towards automation of data mining and other analytical processes involved in data science to increase productivity of associated applications. There are already several efforts to create automated data science platforms. However, these platforms are prevalently oriented towards business and engineering application domains. This paper addresses the automatic data analysis enabled by Cloud-Dew computing in the context of the life-science sector, in particular, in two application domains: breath gas analysis and brain damage restoration.

The dawn of Dew: Dew Computing for advanced living environment

Our present technological civilisation always aims towards new and new goals, and has a strong urge to integrate all what is available in a huge interrelated and as much as possible autonomous system. Thousands and thousands of people try to imagine a problem and get a solution to it, hoping that in our common effort some of their work will show to be beneficial. Entering the Age of Information after a, historically, extremely long period of materialism (not only the last few centuries), and the many ages of not understanding the meaning, or even the existence, of information itself, we are, naturally, inspired, intrigued, confused, elated and stunned by the wast area of possibilities, the enormous applicability and a vision of a future world which would be perfect for a human. Or would it? In this work we will primarily explore the application of Dew Computing paradigm in integrating the lowest level, physical-edge human environment-controlling devices into higher level behavioural systems. An optimistic vision of the future is given in a form of a short “science-future” story.

Performance Aspects of Object-based Storage Services on Single Board Computers

When an object-based storage service is demanded and the cost for purchase and operation of servers, workstations or personal computers is a challenge, single board computers may be an option to build an inexpensive system. This paper describes the lessons learned from deploying different private cloud storage services, which implement the functionality and API of the Amazon Simple Storage Service on a single board computer, the development of a lightweight tool to investigate the performance and an analysis of the archived measurement data. The objective of the performance evaluation is to get an impression, if it is possible and useful to deploy object-based storage services on single board computers.

Security and Compliance Ontology for Cloud Service Agreements

Cloud computing is a business paradigm where two important roles must be defined: provider and consumer. Providers offer services (e.g. web application, web services, and databases) and consumers pay for using them. The goal of this research is to focus on security and compliance aspects of cloud service. An ontology is introduced, which is the conceptualization of cloud domain, for analyzing different compliance aspects of cloud agreements. The terms, properties and relations are shown in a diagram. The proposed ontology can help service consumers to extract relevant data from service level agreements, to interpret compliance regulations, and to compare different contractual terms. Finally, some recommendations are presented for cloud consumers to adopt services and evaluate security risks.

The Interdependent Part of Cloud Computing: Dew Computing

Consumers educe umpteen advantages by placing private data enclosed by cloud computing utilities, although the hindrance of keeping data in such kind of services is the unavailability of consumers own data in absence of Internet connection. To figure out this enigma in an effective and excellent manner, new computing that is independent as well as collaborative with the cloud computing is emerged denoted as Dew computing. The Dew computing is revealed and realized as a fresh layer in the currently distributed computing hierarchy. Dew computing is placed as the base level for the Fog and Cloud computing archetypes. Hierarchical and interdependent separation from Cloud to Dew Computing satisfies the necessity of low and high-end computing demands in day to day life. These new computing paradigms diminish the expense and enhance the execution especially for ideas like Internet of Everything (IoE) and the Internet of Things (IoT). This paper presents basic concepts as well as cloud–dew architecture with working flow of dew computing, the correlation among Cloud Computing, Fog Computing, and Dew Computing along with comparison among all these paradigms.

Cloud Computing, Fog Computing and Dew Computing

Since the first computer was invented in 1946, a few major milestones have stood along the way of Information Technology’s development. Among them, most notable ones are personal computers (PC), the Internet, World Wide Web (WWW), and cloud computing. Cloud computing has drastically changed the landscape of IT industry by providing some major benefits to IT customers: eliminating upfront IT investment, scalability, proportional costs, and so on. In addition, cloud computing also prompts new challenges and brings in new progress. However, the delay-sensitive applications face the problem of large latency, especially when several smart devices are getting involved. Therefore, cloud computing is unable to meet the requirements of low latency, location awareness, and mobility support.

To overcome this problem, Cisco has first introduced a trusted and dependable solution through fog computing to put the services and resources of the cloud closer to users, which facilitates the leveraging of available services and resources in the edge networks. Edge devices such as routers, routing switches, integrated access devices provide an entry point into enterprise or service provider core networks. Fog computing is a scenario where a huge number of heterogeneous ubiquitous and decentralized devices communicate and potentially cooperate with each other and with the network to perform storage and processing tasks without the intervention of third-parties. Similar to cloud computing, fog computing provides data, compute, storage, and application services to end users

Dew computing is an on-premises computer software-hardware organization paradigm in the cloud computing environment where the on-premises computer provides functionality that is independent of cloud services and is also collaborative with cloud services. The goal of dew computing is to fully realize the potentials of on-premises computers and cloud services. Roughly speaking, fog computing mainly involves automation devices while dew computing mainly involves computers; fog computing mainly involves devices such as routers and sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT), while dew computing mainly involves on-premises computers.

The definition and features of cloud computing, fog computing, and dew computing, the relationships among them, and their applications are still under heated discussions.

Dew Computing and Transition of Internet Computing Paradigms

The goal of this paper focuses on the development of dew computing, including its origins, research status, development status, and its impact on the transition history of Internet computing paradigms. By gathering and studying all the research papers related to dew computing that we are aware of, we found that these papers can be classified into three groups: dew computing early explorations, dew computing feature research, and dew computing application research. Commercial development in the dew computing area also has progressed fast recently; many dew computing products were developed and put into the market. To distinguish dew computing from other Internet computing paradigms and to reveal its essential features, we analyze the transition history of the Internet computing paradigms from information location and distribution aspects. Online impact and redundancy rate are two indices introduced to perform the analysis. The analysis reveals that dew computing is significantly different from other Internet computing paradigms.

An Introduction to Dew Computing: Definition, Concept and Implications

Since the end of the 1990s, the world has witnessed a tremendous growth in the area of information and communication technology (ICT), starting with grid computing, cloud computing (CC), and fog computing to recently introduced edge computing. Although, these technologies are still in very good shape, they do heavily rely on connectivity, i.e., Internet. To address this challenge, this paper proposes a novel dew-cloud architecture that brings the power of CC together with the dew computing (DC). Originally, the dew-cloud architecture is an extension of the existing client-server architecture, where two servers are placed at both ends of the communication link. With the help of a dew server, a user has more control and flexibility to access his/her personal data in the absence of an Internet connection. Primarily, the data are stored at the dew server as a local copy upon which instantiation of the Internet is synchronized with the master copy at the cloud side. Users can browse, read, write, or append data on the local dew site, which is a local Web form of an actual website. With the incorporation of the dew domain naming system and dew domain name redirection, mapping between different local dew sites has become possible. Novel services, such as infrastructure-as-a-dew, software-as-a-dew service, and software-as-a-dew product, are, hereby, introduced along with the DC. This paper presents the following as key contributions: 1) a precise and concrete definition of DC; 2) detailed and comprehensive discussions of its concept and working principle; 3) application potentials; and 4) technical challenges. The motto of this paper is to conceptualize the fact of empowerment of the ICT-user base with almost an Internet-free surfing experience in coming days.

Cloud-fog-dew architecture for refined driving assistance: The complete service computing ecosystem

Mapping services like Google Maps, Bing Maps, and Mapbox etc. have been assisting the vehicle drivers for real-time traffic, shortest routes, locations and road topologies since several years, and these services are evolving unceasingly. Road accidents is a prominent cause of deaths in India and so does the road conditions. State of art driving assistance systems guide the drivers for sharp turns and road intersections but they lack in providing the fine grained assistance like potholes, speed breakers, sudden inclinations, and declinations on the road surface. The foremost hurdles for such highly sensitive systems are latency requirements, affordability, and high availability. With cloud computing, we can have high availability and affordability but it may not offer quick response due to its considerable round trip time. Fog computing gives huge advantage on latency side, geo-distribution, mobility, and affordability but high availability (fault-tolerance) cannot be always guaranteed due to its substantial geo-distribution. Moreover, end nodes, in both the cases acts purely as clients. With dew computing, we propose to allocate computing tasks on end devices and make them service providers instead of service consumers. The projected approach is heavily based on peer-to-peer communication which would be complementary in nature with cloud and fog. In this article, we explain how a driver can experience a fine-grained driving assistance if we intertwine all the three computing paradigms together. As per the knowledge of authors, this is the first ever proposal till date which entangles all three computing paradigms (Cloud, Fog and Dew) together.

A novel approach for securely processing information on dew sites (Dew computing) in collaboration with cloud computing: An approach toward latest research trends on Dew computing

A computer user nowadays requires freedom from managing data locally and wants that the data must become available anytime and anywhere. Here the term Cloud comes into existence which provides various services to its user without taking a burden as well as with cheaper cost. This gives much benefits to user but conversely it also suffers from some burning issues like confidentiality, availability, continuous Network connection requirement, integrity and many more. The user data is available on Cloud system and to process that data securely a providers need to process this data without displaying identity of the user. Secondly the user must be able to work with open environment even if the network connection is not available. First issue is solved using the anonymization techniques and for second issue we used an important new term called Dew computing. Dew computing together with Cloud makes a Cloud-Dew architecture which solves above mentioned issues. We are among few researchers who proposed a scheme which solved important issues related to privacy of user information in Cloud-Dew Computing architecture that may be one of the important open platform computing trends in the future.

Practical Criteria for Scheduling CPU-Bound Jobs in Mobile Devices at the Edge

The ubiquity of mobile devices, their strong computational capabilities -frequently underused by the owners- and their close relationship to IoT environments, make them valuable providers of computing power at the edge, i.e. as an aid to deal with remote computing servers high-delay communication. Then, researchers have proposed to take advantage of the connection regularity of groups of mobile devices to fixed wireless networking infrastructures, e.g., access points, to scavenge mobile computing resources. However, among the key concerns to achieve such exploitation in an efficient way is providing new scheduling criteria for computations able to deal with the challenges posed by mobile devices finite energy sources. The value of considering battery-related parameters for ranking devices capabilities against not using them has been hardly investigated in the literature. Then, in this paper, we analyze several job scheduling criteria and provide statistical evidence that support our findings. The experiments are performed via a simulation software that employs energy consumption traces derived from real mobile devices, hence practical utility is ensured.

A Novel Big Data-Enabled Approach, Individualizing and Optimizing Brain Disorder Rehabilitation

Brain disorders occur when our brain is damaged or negatively influenced by injury, surgery, or health conditions. This chapter shows how the combination of novel biofeedback-based treatments producing large data sets with Big Data and Cloud-Dew Computing paradigms can contribute to the greater good of patients in the context of rehabilitation of balance disorders, a significant category of brain damage impairments. The underlying hypothesis of the presented original research approach is that detailed monitoring and continuous analysis of patientīs physiological data integrated with data captured from other sources helps to optimize the therapy w.r.t. the current needs of the patient, improves the efficiency of the therapeutic process, and prevents patient overstressing during the therapy. In the proposed application model, training built upon two systems, Homebalance—a system enabling balance training and Scope—a system collecting physiological data, is provided both in collaborating rehabilitation centers and at patient homes. The preliminary results are documented using a case study confirming that the approach offers a viable way towards the greater good of a patient.

Minimizing dependency on internetwork: Is dew computing a solution?

Since the inception of the internetwork facility, it has been continuously serving as the fundamental backbone of existing aspects, such as cloud, fog, and edge computing. Several application perspectives are in practice that mandate the involvement of application domains including smart retail, transportation, and data analytics. However, the deployed service platforms do not conform to facilitate the minimal and/or internetwork‐free orientation to current paradigms. Hence, to cater this approach, a dew computing paradigm that goals at bringing cloud, fog, or edge resources and services to the nearest of user's periphery without or minimal use of internetwork has been introduced. This article advocates the feasibility, applicability, and appropriation of dew computing while leveraging several real‐life case studies with special attention to internetwork‐free movement. From earlier published literary works, a taxonomy has been devised in the dominion of dew computing. Moreover, highlights are made on selective requirements that would be key to the advancement of dew computing. Finally, challenges are discussed to provide future research directions in the dew computing domain.

Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Dew Computing (DEWCOM 2018)

This volume contains the papers presented at DEWCOM 2018: The 3rd International Workshop on Dew Computing held on October 29-30, 2018 in Toronto, Canada. Dew computing is a new post-cloud computing model appeared in 2015. While cloud computing uses centralized servers to provide various services, dew computing uses on-premises computers to provide decentralized, cloud-friendly, and collaborative micro services to endusers. Dew computing is an on-premises computer software-hardware organization paradigm in the cloud computing environment, which does not contradict with cloud computing, does not replace cloud computing, but it is complementary to cloud computing. The key features of dew computing are that on-premises computers provide functionality independent of cloud services and they also collaborate with cloud services. Briefly speaking, dew computing is an organized way of using local computers in the age of cloud computing.

Dewblock: A Blockchain System Based on Dew Computing

The blockchain technology enabled cryptocurrencies and a lot of other applications that trust is needed among different entities. Because every blockchain client needs to keep huge amount of blockchain data, some personal computers and mobile devices cannot be used to run blockchain clients. To make things worse, the size of blockchain data is always increasing. In this paper, a new kind of blockchain system, Dewblock, is introduced. In this system, a blockchain client does not need to keep the blockchain data and it also has the features of a blockchain full node. Dewblock was developed based on dew computing principles and architecture.

Formal Description of Dew Computing

Dew Computing is a specific cloud-related computing architecture that brings the computing closer to the user. Two main features of the dew computing include independence of external systems and collaboration with other cloud servers, making it an environment that can work in two modes, localized mode where all the services are provided within the internal local network perimeter and global mode, where it functions just as an intermediate device in the client-server cloud model. This article presents a formal description of dew computing as a service model and defines its two main operating modes with mathematical modeling functions.

The Rainbow Global Service Ecosystem

A Rainbow is a complex service ecosystem of interdependent components of Cloud–Fog–Dew Computing paradigm layers that all work together to enable a seamless system of global services. This paper widely and freely (technological and the Philosophical) considers visions and perceptions in order to liberate conceptual scintillation or imagination. The main aim is not to give strict solutions, but to point towards the extreme broadness of present day Computer Science and computer/digital electronics usage, to point towards some possible future development avenues, and to give a simple analogy as a broad conceptual systematical overview, but including some concrete architectural guidelines. The paper presents the IEEE Dew Computing Special Technical Community (IEEE DewCom STC) as a virtual scientific-research and development environment for Dew Computing platform and application development as well as a collaboration model consideration.

Augmenting computing capabilities at the edge by jointly exploiting mobile devices: A survey

The ever-growing adoption of smart mobile devices is a worldwide phenomenon that positions smartphones and tablets as primary devices, i.e., that people mostly use. In addition to this, the computing capabilities of such devices, often under-utilized by their owners, are in continuous improvement. Today, smart mobile devices have multi-core CPUs, several gigabytes of RAM, and the ability to communicate through several wireless networking technologies. These facts caught the attention of researchers who propose to leverage smart mobile devices aggregated computing capabilities for running resource intensive software at the edge of the network. Such idea is conditioned by key features, named singularities in the context of this work, that makes smart mobile devices resource exploitation a difficult problem. These are the ability of devices to change location (user mobility), the shared condition -i.e., non-dedicated nature- of resources provided (lack of ownership) and the limited operation time given by the finite energy source (exhaustible resources). In this paper, we provide an in-depth analysis of proposals materializing this idea. We show that (a) existing approaches differ in the singularities combinations they target and the way they address each singularity through novel taxonomies, and (b) this fact makes them suitable for distinct goals and resource exploitation opportunities also schematized in this paper. The latter are represented by real life situations where resources provided by groups of smart mobile devices can be exploited, which in turn, are characterized by a social context and a networking support used to link and coordinate devices. The behavior of people in a given social context configure a special availability level of resources, while the networking support imposes restrictions on how data/computational tasks are distributed and results are collected. We conclude our analysis by discussing strong/weak points of the approaches and by identifying prospective future lines in the area.

Post-cloud Computing Models: from Cloud to CDEF

Since cloud computing has been widely accepted, progress in research and development enriched the landscape of this area. Such progress can be summarized in the following way: From cloud to CDEF, where C represents Cloudlet, D represents Dew Computing, E represents Edge Computing, and F represents Fog Computing. CDEF starts with C also implies that these four models all started from Cloud Computing.

Internet of things-based real-time model study on e-healthcare: Device, message service and dew computing

Real-timeliness is the key aspect for the growing perspective of Internet of Things (IoT). IoT being a heterogenous and highly distributed framework requires instantaneous adoption of collateral attributes. Due to the lack of service-oriented manifestation of timely signaling, may hinder back the IoT's envisaged speculation. This paper investigates three possible solutions where IoT can be benefited with real-time affect that includes (i) multi-tasking of popular micro-processing modules, (ii) sensor-generated IoT stream processing in cloud-centric medium and (iii) dew computing-based context-aware local computing. The objective of this article is to provide an in-depth analysis and validation of real-time scheduling in resource constrained hardware platforms through real-time message passing in presence of a cloud facilitator with a real-time context. A novel dew computing architecture is hereby introduced and proposed to foresee as an enabler of the context-aware service framework in purely real-time fashion. The promising outcomes validated the proposed frameworks when compared to existing alternatives in terms of efficiency, responsiveness and appropriateness. All the three studies are concentrated to envisage the possible impact on the IoT e-healthcare as a model study. The discussion section presents an overall analysis of the three deployed experiments to find their pros and cons.

Towards Integrating Mobile Devices into Dew Computing: A Model for Hour-Wise Prediction of Energy Availability

With self-provisioning of resources as premise, dew computing aims at providing computing services by minimizing the dependency over existing internetwork back-haul. Mobile devices have a huge potential to contribute to this emerging paradigm, not only due to their proximity to the end user, ever growing computing/storage features and pervasiveness, but also due to their capability to render services for several hours, even days, without being plugged to the electricity grid. Nonetheless, misusing the energy of their batteries can discourage owners to offer devices as resource providers in dew computing environments. Arguably, having accurate estimations of remaining battery would help to take better advantage of a device’s computing capabilities. In this paper, we propose a model to estimate mobile devices battery availability by inspecting traces of real mobile device owner’s activity and relevant device state variables. The model includes a feature extraction approach to obtain representative features/variables, and a prediction approach, based on regression models and machine learning classifiers. On average, the accuracy of our approach, measured with the mean squared error metric, overpasses the one obtained by a related work. Prediction experiments at five hours ahead are performed over activity logs of 23 mobile users across several months.

Towards reliable and trustful personal health record systems: a case of cloud-dew architecture based provenance framework

Personal health records (PHR) system serves not just as static repositories for data but it also combines knowledge and software tools with patients’ data that results in empowering patients to become active participants in their own healthcare management by providing their own medical history. In this research, a cloud-dew Architecture based Layered Provenance Framework for PHR system is proposed that goes beyond the trivial network/storage/service concept to a new micro-service level concept offering high scalability and availability in vertically distributed computing hierarchy. It pushes the frontiers of computing applications, data, and low-level services away from centralized virtual nodes to the end users. In response to this new micro-service model, a study was conducted of initially scrutinizing the cloud-dew architecture and ascertaining a list of requirements for the collection of provenance. We have observed the different layers of the cloud-dew architecture for identifying the requirements while keeping in view the several characteristics of cloud-dew architecture such as abstraction, modularity, etc. A lightweight and cost-efficient provenance framework is designed and established for its accomplishment. In addition, this proposed framework also provides services such as storage, query, and visualization of provenance besides highlighting the identified list of requirements. To measure the benefits of enabling provenance in Dew Computing, the pre-collected provenance and services of the proposed framework are utilized.

DewSim: A trace‐driven toolkit for simulating mobile device clusters in Dew computing environments

Dew computing is an emerging computing paradigm, which aims at minimizing the dependency over existing internetwork back‐haul, ie, being dependent on processing resources offered by remote servers. Smartphones and tablets ubiquity and powerful computing hardware motivated researchers to investigate the way of providing Dew computing services by exploiting the aggregated capabilities of devices in a vicinity, a smart device cluster. Consequently, research on resource management is necessary to learn how to scavenge resources from such a cluster, deal with devices heterogeneity, limitations, and dynamic resource availability. Simulation is commonly practiced for studying resource management in other distributed computing research fields, specially due to the complexity involved in the set up of experiments. However, a free‐to‐use purpose specific toolkit for studying smart device clusters do not exist or have been documented. Current simulation efforts do not allow researchers to faithfully represent key singularities of such environment, which are energy depletion and nondedicated nature of computing resources. We propose a trace‐based toolkit built on modular software artifacts to speed up research in resource management techniques in Dew environments. A trace‐driven methodology is adopted to assure practical value of simulated scenarios. The toolkit comprises a device profiler application for Android to capture generic battery and CPU traces from real devices, a profile mixer to create user interaction baseline traces through generic ones, and an extensible engine to simulate the execution of workloads configurable via text files. Verification and validation tests were run to show correctness and reliability of our simulation approach.

Edge computing for Internet of Things: A survey, e-healthcare case study and future direction

The world has recently witnessed the emergence of huge technological growth in the field of data transmission and smart living through various modes of information and communication technology. For example, edge computing has taken a leading role to embark upon the problems related to the internetwork bandwidth minimization and service latency reduction. Inclusion of small microcontroller chips, smart sensors and actuators in the existing socio-economic sectors have paved the Internet of Things (IoT) to act upon the dissemination of smart services to the end users. Thus, a strong need of understating of the industrial elements of edge computing has become necessary that can share the mutual goal while assimilating with the IoT. This paper advocates the crucial role of industrial standards and elements of the edge computing for the dissemination of overwhelming augmented user experience with conjunction with the IoT. First, we present the taxonomical classification and review the industrial aspects that can benefit from both of the IoT and edge computing scenario, then discuss about each of the taxonomical components in detail. Second, we present two practically implemented use cases that have recently employed the edge-IoT paradigm together to solve urban smart living problems. Third, we propose a novel edge-IoT based architecture for e-healthcare i.e. EH-IoT and developed a demo test-bed. The test results showed promising results towards minimizing dependency over IoT cloud analytics or storage facility. We conclude with discussion on the various parameters such as, architecture, requirement capability, functional issues, and selection criteria, related to the survival of edge-IoT ecosystem incorporation.

Counting time in drops: views on the role and importance of smartwatches in dew computing

A large amount of data, called the big data, generated by the devices that are part of the Internet of Things, is expected in the coming years. This scenario creates challenges for sending, processing, and storing all data centrally in the cloud. Recent works propose a decentralization of the processing and storage of this data in local devices close to the user to solve such challenges. This paradigm, called dew computing, has been gaining attention from academia. Several works apply this proposal through devices such as desktops, laptops, and smartphones. However, after a systematic review, no studies were found that applied this proposal to smart wearable devices. Thus, this work shows the research, evaluation, analysis, and discussion of smartwatches for the dew computing environment. The results of this work showed that smartwatches could extend local device functionalities through performing services, cooperating with decentralizing cloud computing, and helping to reduce the negative impacts of the big data.

Reliable Edge

IoT domains such as health-care, automation and control, augmented and virtual reality etc are incubating novel applications and devices everyday. The data generated in these domains must be processed under strict delay requirements. Beyond the processing deadlines, the information loses its value. Apart from that, processing resources are required to be available all the time and Cloud’s or communication failure must not hinder the services provided by such IoT applications. So, reliability is one of the major concerns for all these IoT applications. Considering all these requirements, it is been observed that instead of processing such data at the far Cloud, it is beneficial to process it closer to the source. This led to a new paradigm called Edge Computing. Edge computing has emerged as an effective solution for delay sensitive IoT applications. In the Edge-Cloud hierarchy, reliability and fault tolerance are the major issues. This thesis proposes a novel fault-tolerant and reliable hierarchical IoT-Cloud architecture which can survive the failures of the Cloud Server and the Edge Server(s).

In the proposed architecture, the sensed data processing is distributed over four levels (Cloud-FogMist-Dew) based on the level processing power and distance from the end IoT devices. This hierarchical architecture is an advancement over the existing IoT-Cloud architecture. The proposed system becomes reliable by replicating the model-files (generated after data training) and some relevant data at the Edge Server from the Cloud. It allows the Edge to generate feedback after receiving the sensed data, in case of any event happens. It indeed improves the reliability of IoT applications by providing them services in the case of unavailability of the processing resources especially due to the communication failure with the Cloud Server.

Although, hierarchical Edge-Cloud architecture resolves the problems of resource unavailability and feedback delays, what if the Edge Server fails? It induces unheard issues of reliability and fault tolerance at the Edge. The system can not be completely reliable until the reliability issues at the edge of the network are resolved. This thesis proposes a novel mechanism using connection switching to deal with Edge Servers’ failures. In case of an Edge failure, IoT application is redirected to an alternate available Edge Server. If there are multiple alternate Edge Servers available, redirection to a new Edge is decided based on the delay-tolerance of the IoT applications. It makes the entire system reliable and fault-tolerant.

The proposed IoT-Cloud architecture with Reliable-Edge has been implemented as an extension of Landslide Early Warning System (LEWS) to improve its reliability. LEWS is one of the most suitable applications to apply the proposed mechanism(s). During laboratory experiments, results demonstrate that the system attains maximum availability of the computation resources. Along with this, results prove its efficiency when the proposed system is analyzed theoretically and simulated using Matlab.

The thesis also contributes to the construction of a Reliable Edge Controller (EC) that reliably assigns any type of computational resources available at the edge to the IoT applications. A variety of devices available at the network access layer have been considered to be utilized to serve IoT applications. This includes the use of devices available with private users, dedicated Edge Servers and Cloud infrastructure. The proposed system learns the optimal operating parameters during initial runs. Using the knowledge acquired in the learning phase, an integer linear programming problem is formulated to minimize the Mean Time To Complete (MTTC) the request for all the IoT nodes. The solution of the formulated problem provides optimized resource allocation for all the IoT nodes. Later, considering the unreliable nature of the privately owned devices, the learning and formulation has been extended to incorporate probability of failure of these devices. This evolves the EC into a reliable one.

The Rainbow: Integrating Computing into the Global Ecosystem

Are we aware of the fact that what we develop today, the world we create-our children will have to live in it. Unintentionally, and with little or no self-awareness, computer science has crept into every aspect of life, or, better to say, almost every aspect of the natural and social environment has crept into the lap of computer science. Somehow much in the world today came to be the responsibility of Computer Science. Unfortunately, the development was so rapid and mostly stochastic that most of us, computer scientists and computer engineers, application, software and computing paradigm inventors and developers, did not even have a chance yet to realise the Responsibility we are taking on. The ecosystems we live in, from the ecosystem of the family to the ecosystem of social groups and groupings, from the ecosystem of the human body itself, to the ecosystem of the globaly interdependent economics, and from the ecosystem of the living beings sharing this world with us, up to the ecosystem of the whole Earth, those ecosystems are more and more being monitored, controlled and even steered by a mirriad of human-produced artifacts, all-pervasively being based on data processing equipment, or, commonly said, computers. It is very obvious that in modern days computer science leads an extremely influential role in all these ecosystems. It is also obvious that for its ideas and actions in those fields computer science has to take responsibility. In the overall "computing" ecosystem there is actually a kind of "evaporation" of information and requests upwards from Nature to Dew to Human to Fog to Cloud, and a "rain" of services and processed information from the Cloud downwards. Therefore the associative name of Rainbow-as an analogy to the sunray spectrum-an ecosystem in which we necessarily include both the "technical" and the "philosophical" aspects, or, in other words, both the Machines and the Humans. A consistent, robust and properly defined Rainbow Ecosystem will offer new possibilities of knowledge development and information usage for a very broad user base, it will enable proper maintenance of essential natural and human-generated ecosystems, and enable huge savings in many areas of effort, as well as providing novel applications and actively respond to changing economy, supply and business needs, while keeping the Global Ecosystem in natural balance. Proper and responsible cooperation between humans, machines, the environment and the nature, with the aim of freedom, security, prosperity and true betterment of life, is the only way forward.

Modeling The Edge: Peer-to-Peer Reincarnated

The rise of edge computing as a new storage and compute model has already motivated numerous studies within the systems community, focusing on the choices and mechanisms of task offloading from end devices to the edge infrastructure, pricing, consistency, indexing and caching. However, it is not yet entirely clear how the edge infrastructure itself will be deployed, and, more importantly, managed. A common point of view considers the edge as an extension of traditional content distribution networks (CDN), due to its hierarchical layout, centralized ownership, and cloud back-end.

In this paper, we consider a different view of the edge, as a "reincarnation" of the well-known peer-to-peer (P2P) model. We show how the edge is similar to P2P systems in many aspects, including the number, heterogeneity and limited availability and resources of its nodes, their central role in performing the system's storage and computation, and the vulnerabilities related to tight interoperability with user end devices. We describe the similarities of the edge to both CDNs and P2P systems, the challenges that arise from these similarities, and the previous approaches to address them in both contexts. We show that the challenges that remain in applying these approaches may be addressed by viewing the edge as a larger and smarter reincarnation of P2P systems.

Preprint: From Dew Over Cloud Towards the Rainbow - Ecosystem of the Future: Nature - Human - Machine

This preprint is a longer version of a Chapter printed in Springer Nature book "Intelligence in Big Data Technologies - Beyond the Hype". Longer Abstract: This article is dedicated primarily to the Philosophy of Computing, where Computing is taken in its wide sense of “constructed/programmed machine action”, the global area of Computer Science. It gives an overview of what the Computer Science has to deal with in modern times, as in extremely (historically) short time “computing” equipment penetrated into all aspects of human and natural environments. Therefore suddenly Computer Science, although still in its primary perception a Technical Science, has to deal with, and consequently be responsible for, an almost inexhaustible area of the whole of natural and human life, including individual, social, political and economic subsistence, as well as cultivation (and consequently adaptation – and change) of natural environments. Regarding this, there are three main fields it has to deal with: the Machine, the Human and the Nature. So there are also three major aspects from which the development of the Future Ecosystem, presently extremely influenced by Computer Science, has to be seen and done: the Technological, the Humanistic and the Naturalistic. As archetypal symbols, colours are used throughout our history. A symbolic “division” of a future Nature-Human-Machine Ecosystem, or of the major symbolic areas of Computer Science, is given through the vision of a Rainbow, a Rainbow of Colours shone onto the field: Infrared – Energy, Red – Hardware, Orange – Creativity, Yellow – Appropriateness, Green – Nature, Blue – Communication, Indigo – Cooperation, Violet – Interference, Ultraviolet – Visions.

Real-time event-driven sensor data analytics at the edge-Internet of Things for smart personal healthcare

Real-time service has become a key for efficient serving of the Internet of Things (IoT)-based smart e-Healthcare. Several orientations have tried to pave this side of the technology but severely lacked in terms of incorporations of lightweight and open IoT-based frameworks. This study presents two different experiments that deals with the real-time visualization, charting and analytics while using real-time and open java script frameworks that includes Node.js, Johnny-Five, SperialPort, PubNub client, EON.js, Chart.js, Express Server and Socket.io. The objective of this work is to investigate the IoT-based real-time analytics behavior in cost-effective e-health sensor deployment scenario. The results found from the study advocates for the growth and assimilation of IoT-based open-source java script frameworks for serving real-time sensor data analytics in e-Healthcare sector.

A performance comparison of heuristics for scheduling jobs in hybrid mobile topologies

Hardware improvements of mobile devices have allowed them to be considered as first-class resources at the edge, which has led to the need to propose new techniques and scheduling heuristics to make efficient usage of these devices. Current scheduling heuristics available in the literature do not take into account mobile grid nodes that do not rely on batteries to work, a factor that is of great importance in the advent of mobile-edge computing. In this paper we propose a simple algorithm that incorporates a more advanced awareness of a mobile device's power supply and we show that incorporating this characteristic can enable these heuristics to manage edge resources in a more efficient way.

Dew Computing Architecture for Cyber-Physical Systems and IoT

The concept to be on the edge of the Internet network means that the analyzed devices and systems will work only as a part of a general common integrated system, such as in the case of cyber-physical systems and various devices that act as an Internet of connected Things. Although post-cloud architectures are most commonly associated with edge computing, a focus in this paper is set on dew computing architecture that extends this concept with a specific architecture out of the edge. The dew computing implementation in cyber-physical systems allows autonomous devices and smart systems, that can collaborate and exchange information with the environment, still be independent of other external systems or perform in a connected more complex cyber-physical system of systems. This paper aims at presenting an architecture of applying dew computing for cyber-physical systems, elaborating the new features and functionalities and comparing it to other similar architectures.

Preprint: Information Communication Society - a Possible Ecology of the Future

As Henry A. Giroux recently stated, the situation caused by the present pandemic of the Novel Corona Virus (SARS CoV-2) is not only a medical crisis, but even much more a "Socio-Political and Ideological crisis", "crisis of Greed" "and Pedagogical crisis". Consequently it is now absolutely essential to develop our Collective Imagination to produce possible Visions of the Future in which a novel global system of ecological production, distribution and usage of long-life high-quality products will only by necessity support the basic economic local production, distribution and usage of human survival essentials. In this sense an Information Communication Society, heavily leaning on organisational "skills" of computer and networking applications, will have to be envisioned, developed, organised and implemented on the global scale. The Information Communication Technologies and Computer Science developments will have to heavily concentrate primarily on enabling such an Information Communication Society, a future global society of local societies based on Kairology (the science of the right moment) and Synergy (co-operation) and rooted in proper present and future developments of the knowledge of Cybernetics (the science of dynamic systems) and Ecology (the science of the whole).

DewMusic: crowdsourcing-based internet of music things in dew computing paradigm

Internet of Things is a promising paradigm that integrates a plethora of heterogeneous computational devices, incorporating the crowd, frameworks, additional system elements, and infrastructure. Information sensing, modeling, retrieval, and distribution perform an emerging role in the Internet of Things network. Dew computing is a challenging research issue, which needs to demonstrate its impact on the sensor data in the domain of parallel and distributed computing. We have presented a dew-cloud computing-based music crowdsourcing framework in this paper, to address the dew computing effectiveness in the context of the Internet of Things. The crowdsourcing paradigms are efficient to collect and analyze billions of information efficiently with a diminutive cost. In this promising paradigm, participated sound sensing devices sense acoustic information from the environment; transmit the sensor data to fog computing devices through dew repository, and eventually, cloud data center stores the processed data for providing aggregated musical information and relevant services to the end-users. This paper presents a Dew-Cloud based music crowdsourcing framework in the ambiance of the Internet of Things. We have illustrated a semantic mathematical background for the proposed crowdsourcing-based Internet of Music Things architecture in the dew-cloud computing framework. We have also discussed the system performance metrics, in terms of information transmission time, service latency, and energy dissipation in this endeavor. We have additionally illustrated a comparative analysis between the proposed paradigm and the conventional cloud computing schema in terms of data transmission time and overall system energy dissipation. The goal of this paper is to conceptualize, how the end-users can be benefitted from data analytics through data sensing, computing, and distributed scenario using a dew-cloud computational framework in the Internet of Things environment.

From Dew Over Cloud Towards the Rainbow / Ecosystem of the Future: Nature—Human—Machine

This article is dedicated to the Philosophy of Computing, where Computing is taken in its wide sense of “constructed/programmed machine action”. As in modern times computing equipment ubiquitously penetrates all aspects of human and natural environments, suddenly Computer Science has to deal with, and consequently be responsible for, an almost inexhaustible area of natural and human life—individual, social, political and economic subsistence, and cultivation (adaptation/change) of natural environments. Therefore, there are three main fields it has to deal with: the Machine, the Human and the Nature. So there are also three major aspects from which the development of the Future Ecosystem, presently extremely influenced by Computer Science, has to be seen and done: the Technological, the Humanistic and the Naturalistic. As archetypal symbols, colours are used throughout our history. A symbolic “division” of a future Nature–Human–Machine Ecosystem, or of the major symbolic areas of Computer Science, is given through the vision of a Rainbow: Infrared—Energy, Red—Hardware, Orange—Creativity, Yellow—Appropriateness, Green—Nature, Blue—Communication, Indigo—Cooperation, Violet—Interference, Ultraviolet—Visions.

Preprint: The Relevance of Blockchain with Dew Computing

Blockchain after its discovery and application to bitcoin has become a vital platform for data validation and verification across diverse sectors such as healthcare, supply chain, governance, and many others. The era of cloud computing has facilitated the access of one’s data on the go making it almost impossible to lose data as your work. However, the use of the cloud demands constant aces to the internet warranting the relevance of the dew computing paradigm with terms to give access to one’s data locally without the use of the internet and then updating the document on the cloud based on the internet restoration. In this paper, we seek to conduct a review of the above areas of blockchain and dew computing drawing the need for the integration of both technologies.

Preprint: The Rainbow through the Lens of Dew

Ecological Responsibility of Computer Science is essential in further development of the science and application of computer technology.

The rapid development of all kinds of computer controlled things and mobile devices, without and with Internet connectivity, represents presently the most prominent information technology application area. On the lowest level, below the Edge of Internet, we have a huge amount of individual devices ("things") which do actually the most significant amount of information processing. Those are computer controlled utensils of all kinds-cars, boilers, production machines, traffic lights, plant carers etc., directly intertwined with our natural and human physical environment and our immediate surroundings. These devices, which are neither at the Cloud or Fog edge, nor even at the mobile edge, are the basis of the Dew Computing Paradigm. Further exploration and usage of the realm of possibilities of Dew Computing will solve the basic problems of integration of the "dew" level with the higher service level(s) in the Dew-Fog-Cloud hierarchy. When the distributed Cloud-Dew service architecture is developed and adopted, a Cloud server and many Dew servers will be able to cooperate as a distributed application to provide controls or services.

In view of that it is absolutely necessary to see the present (and specifically future) development through the eyes of Philosophy of Computing and Ethics, and further the development through application of Ethical and Ecological principles.

The Rainbow Ecosystem is a pragmatical hierarchical abstract cybernetic representation of an ecologically viable system, consisting of 9 essential areas, and applicable recursively throughout the integrated hierarchy. The ecological viability of the abstract system will enable proper ecologically responsible development of Rainbow Computing Services, integrating our living Nature-Human-Machine ecosystem.

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Last change: 8/9/2020, 17:41 CEST, by Zorislav Šojat.

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